Some competition came from the newly independent United States, which began to compete in Guangzhou, selling Turkish opium in the 1820s. Portuguese traders also brought opium from the independent Malwa states of western India, although by 1820, the British were able to restrict this trade by charging \"pass duty\" on the opium when it was forced to pass through Bombay to reach an entrepot.Despite drastic penalties and continued prohibition of opium until 1860, opium smuggling rose steadily from 200 chests per year under the Yongzheng Emperor to 1,000 under the Qianlong Emperor, 4,000 under the Jiaqing Emperor, and 30,000 under the Daoguang Emperor. The illegal sale of opium became one of the world's most valuable single commodity trades and has been called \"the most long continued and systematic international crime of modern times\". Opium smuggling provided 15 to 20 percent of the British Empire's revenue and simultaneously caused scarcity of silver in China.
After working in finance for nine years, I never thought that I would be traveling the beautiful Colombian countryside in search of amazing coffee and stories... Let me rewind a bit. Earlier this year, I discovered that coffee is a fruit. This simplistic revelation sparked an obsessive curiosity. How could I not know this about the second-most traded commodity (behind crude oil) and a drink that I consumed every single day! What else did I not know As it turns out, there was a lot that I did not know! For starters, coffee should be thought of like wine instead of like a commodity. Also, there is a massive transparency problem within the coffee world. And thus, Who Is Coffee was born. Our goal is to change the traditional coffee narrative and open a window into the lives of those that share a passion for coffee. I wrote all about the inspiration in our first blog post: -the-coffee-world/we-may-be-crazy-but-we-have-a-mission
doughnut/donut - fried cake ball or ring/fool or idiot/various other slang - doughnuts were balls before they were rings, in which case the use of the word nut would have been literal because nut means a knob or lump of food. The notable other less likely explanations for the use of the word nut in doughnut are: associations with nutmeg in an early recipe and the use or removal of a central nut (mechanical or edible) to avoid the problem of an uncooked centre. Incidentally a doughnut's soft centre of jam (US jelly), custard, fruit, etc., and the hole, were devised for this reason. Doughnuts seem to have been popularised among Dutch settlers in the USA, although earlier claims are made for doughnuts existing in Native American Indian traditions. In truth the notion of dropping a piece of dough into hot fat or oil is not the most complex concept, and doughnut-type cakes can be found in the traditional cuisine of virtually every part of the world. The word doughnut entered common use in the early 1800s (Chambers cites Washington Irving's Knickerbocker's History of New York, 1809) but a single origin is elusive and probably does not exist. The mainstream popularity of the word, and its shortening to donut (recorded since 1929, and therefore in use prior), emanates from US marketing of the product in shops and stalls, etc. The use of the word doughnut (and donut) to refer to a fool or especially someone behaving momentarily like an idiot, which I recall from 1970s London, is one of many recent slang interpretations of the word (dough-head was an earlier version of this from the 1800s - nut is slang for head). These other slang uses are chiefly based on metaphors of shape and substance, which extend to meanings including: the circular handbrake-turn tricks by stunt drivers and and joy riders (first mainly US); a truck tyre (tire, US mainly from 1930s); the vagina; the anus; and more cleverly a rich fool (plenty of money, dough, but nothing inside). The word dough incidentally is very old indeed, evolving in English from dag (1000), doh (1150) and then dogh (1300), and much earlier from the Indo-European base words dheigh and dhoigh, which meant to knead dough or clay.
(And this from Anthony Harrison, Sept 2007): \"The use of 'kay' with reference to pounds sterling was already in use by engineers when I first became an electronics engineer around 1952. The term 'kay' for kilo had been in use for many years with reference to the value of components (e.g., a resistor of 47K was 47 Kilo-ohms). This was of course because many components were marked in this manner. As we engineers were used to this, we automatically talked about our project costs and estimates using this terminology, even when talking to clients and accountants. They also spoke in this manner, but whether they did to each other when engineers were not present, I do not know. As this was speech, I have no proof of this, but this transfer of terminology from engineering to money certainly goes back to the late 1940s.\" (Ack Anthony Harrison)
mistletoe - white-berried plant associated with Christmas and kissing - the roots (pun intended) of mistletoe are found in the early Germanic, Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Indo-European words referring either to dung and urine (for example, mist, mehati, meiere, miegh) since the seeds of the mistletoe plant were known to be carried in the droppings of birds. The Old English word version of mistletoe first appeared about a thousand years ago when 'tan', meaning twig, from the Germanic origin tainaz, was added to produce 'mistiltan', which evolved by the 15th century into something close to the modern word. Tan became toe when misinterpreted from the plural of ta, between the 12th and 15th centuries. Incidentally there are hundreds of varieties of mistletoe around the world and many different traditions and superstitions surrounding this strange species. It's a parasitic plant, attaching itself and drawing sustenance from the branches of a host tree, becoming especially noticeable in the winter when the berries appear. The greenery and fruit of the mistletoe contrast markedly at winter with the bareness of the host tree, which along with formation of the leaves and the juice of the white berries helps explain how mistletoe became an enduring symbol of fertility, dating back to ancient Britain. 59ce067264